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Реферат 3 сочинения на новогоднюю тему (english)

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Текст реферата 3 сочинения на новогоднюю тему (english)

Holidays
CHRISTMAS
The word "Christmas" is derived from the words "Christ's Mass" the
celebration of the birth of Jesus Christ. But although Christmas is
undoubtedly a Christian celebration, it is also true to say that it is
an unusual combination of pagan and Christian festivities.
A Christmas tree stands in everybody's living room at Christmas,
shining its good cheer around the room. Sitting on the very top of the
tree is a silver star surrounded by tiny lights. All the branches are
hung with silver bells, tinsel and sparkling lights. Around the base
of the tree lie the gifts and toys wrapped up in bright colourful
paper.
The Christmas tree has spread its influence around the world. In fact
America adopted it before it found its way to England early in Queen
Victoria's reign. Now every Christmas British people are sent a huge
fir tree from Norway which stands in Trafalgar Square, in the centre
of London, shining down on all the people who gather on Christmas Eve.
In pre-Christian times evergreens, trees that remain green throughout
the year. were worshiped in Northern Europe as symbols of eternal
life. Mistletoe, hung up as a Christmas decoration is a symbol of love
and reconciliation.
Holly, a wellknown Christmas decoration today, has Christian
associations. In Norwegian, Swedish and Danish, holly is known as
"Christ's thorns", the legend being that Christ wore a crown of holly
thorns before his death. Some people have seen associations between
the word "holly" and "holy".
Giving presents goes back to Roman Saturnalia when good luck gifts of
fruit, pastry or gold were given to friends on New Year's Day. In
Britain the traditional day to give presents until relatively recently
was December 26th and not as it is today, Christmas Day. December 26th
is now known as Boxing Day, for it was then that the priests of the
Middle Ages opened alms boxes to give to the poor.
Not all Christian customs and traditions are of ancient origin.
Although various people have claimed to have designed the first
Christmas card. William Egley, an English artist, seems to have the
best claim. In 1842 he designed his own card and sent it to one
hundred of his friends. Today three billion are sent annually in the
United States alone.
HAPPY NEW YEAR
At midnight on 31st December bells will ring out around the world to
welcome the New Year. Although certain countries and religions
calculate time by other calendars most countries in the world now
number their years according to the Gregorian calendar introduced in
the 16th century by Pope Gregory XIII. This calendar was intended to
overcome the confusion caused by calculating time according to the
moon's phases.
Bell ringing is one way of celebrating the arrival of a new year
which is common to all countries welcoming it at this time; but it is
the differences in their celebrations and customs which are
intriguing.
In Europe traditions vary considerably, but most of them involve a
meal or special food. Swiss