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Table of contents
Table of contents
I . General information about Ukraine
II . Industry and agriculture
III. Economy of Ukraine
IV. T he Interesting places in Kyiv
The utillized literature
I. The nation's history began with that of the East Slavs. From at
least the 9th century, the te
rritory of Ukraine was a center of
the medieval East Slavic civilization fo rming the state of Kievan
Rus', which disintegrated in the 12th century. From the 14th century
on, the territory of Ukraine was divided among a number of regional
powers and by the 19th century the largest part of Ukraine was
integrated into the Russian E m pire with the rest under
Austro-Hungarian control. After a chaotic period of incessant warfare
and several attempts at independence (1917 – 1921) following the
Russian Revolution and the Great War, Ukraine emerged in 1922 as one
of the founding republics of the Soviet Union. The Ukrainian Soviet
Socialist Republic's territory was enlarged westward shortly before
and after the Second World War, and again in 1954 with the Crimea
transfer. In 1945, the Ukrainian SSR became one of the cofounding
members of the U nited Nations. Ukraine became independent again after
the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991. This began a transition
period to a market economy, in which Ukraine was stricken with eight
straight years of economic decline. But since about the turn of the
century, the economy has been experiencing a stable increase, with
real GDP growth averaging about seven percent annually.
Ukraine is a unitary state composed of 24 oblasts (provinces), one
autonomous republic (Crimea), and two cities with special stat us:
Kiev, its capital, and Sevastopol, which houses the Russian Black Sea
Fleet under a leasing agreement. Ukraine is a republic under a
semipresidential system with separate legislative, executive, and
judicial branches. At the end of 2004, the country u nderwent an
extensive constitutional reform that has changed the balance of power
among the parliament, the prime minister, and the cabinet, as well as
their relationship with the president.
At 603,700 kmІ (233,074 sq mi) and with a coastline of 2,782 km (
1,729 sq mi), Ukraine is the world's 44thlargest country (after the
Central African Republic, before Madagascar). It is the second largest
country in Europe (after the European part of Russia, before
metropolitan France).
The Ukrainian landscape consists mostly of fertile plains (or
steppes) and plateaus, crossed by rivers such as the Dnieper (Dnipro),
Seversky Donets, Dniester and the Southern Buh as they flow south into
the Black Sea and the smaller Sea of Azov. To the southwest, the delta
of the Danube forms the border with Romania. The country's only
mountains are the Carpathian Mountains in the west, of which the
highest is the Hora Hoverla at 2,061 m (6,762 ft), and those on the
Crimean peninsula, in the extreme south along the coast.
Ukraine has a mo stly temperate continental climate,