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Реферат Archaisms in literature

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Текст реферата Archaisms in literature

1 General information about archaisms
The process of words aging
Alternative meanings
List of archaic English words and their modern equivalents
2 Analysis of ancient texts
W. Shakespeare, Sonnet 2
“ Love and duty reconcil ’ d ” by W. Congreve
3 Archaisms in literature and mass media
Deliberate usage of archaisms
Commonly misused archaisms
The wordstock of a language is in an increasing state of change. Words
change their meaning and sometimes drop out of the langua ge
altogether. New words spring up and replace the old ones. Some words
stay in the language a very long time and do not lose their faculty of
gaining new meanings and becoming richer and richer polysemantically.
Other words live but a short time and are like bubbles on the surface
of water — they disapp e ar leaving no trace of their existence.
In registering these processes the role of dictionaries can hardly be
overestimated. Dictionaries serve to retain this or that word in a
language either as a relic of ancient times, where it lived and
circulated, o r as a still living unit of the system, though it may
have lost some of its meanings. They may also preserve certain
noncecreations, which were n ever intended for general use. In every
period in the development of a literary language one can find words
whi ch will show more or less apparent changes in their meaning or
usage, from full vigour, through a moribund state, to death, i. e.
complete disappearance of the unit from the language.
Usually we do not notice the change that takes place during our own
tim e because it happens quite slowly. But if we take a look back over
a considerable span of time, language change becomes more obvious. If
we touch the problem of historical development we can not pass over in
silence peculiarities of early English language, and comparison
between initial and today ’ s English. Such line of
investigation considers diachronic approach to the main question of
this course work – archaisms in literature. It ’ s very
important to reveal the notion of archaism, the sphere of usage, ori
gin and many other essential components that are comprised by the word
“ Archaism” . Besides the direct investigation of archaisms
I included information about neologisms, as contrary notion, and also
about retronym s. All t he aspects stated above will be ca refully
investigated in this work; moreover there will be included olden text
with and analysis of poetry .
1General information about archaisms
Archaisms are words which are no longer used in everyday speech, which
have been ousted by their synonyms. Archaisms remain in the language,
but they are used as stylisti c devices to express solemnity. Most of
these words are lexical archaisms and they are stylistic synonyms of
words which ousted them from the neutral style. Some of them are: