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Реферат Bronchopulmonary system

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Текст реферата Bronchopulmonary system

Астраханская государственная медицинская академия
Кафедра иностранных языков с курсом латинского языка
Зав. кафедрой
профессор Татаринова Л. А .
Учебноисследовательская работа по теме
« Организация бронхолегочной системы человека. Значение и функции
»

Подготовил студент 2 05 группы
педиатрического факультета
Аксенов А.И.
Астрахань 2008
Й . Introduction.
Various specialists of a medical structure often use concept "
bronchopulmonary system " at an estimation and interpretings of the
work of researches, etc. Diseases and pathologies of bronchopulmonary
system are separately represented in a propedeutics of internal
diseases and clinical diagnostics of a pathology of system of organs
of respiration of the person.
In anatomical and physiological aspect we can represent
bronchopulmonary system as a combination of separate organs and
functional subsystems, accordingly, in united functional system of
organs of respiration of the person. It in common with circulatory
system provides respiration in all senses of this word.
So, the functional plan bronchopulmonary the system is formed by the
inferior pneumatic ways, a transitive zone and gas exchange area. The
pneumatic way is a space which carrying out transport of atmospheric
air in gas exchange area. These ways are presented by a trachea, two
primary bronchuses and bronchioles up to 16 generations. The trachea
begins at the lower part of a larynx and goes down in a thoracic
cavity. Tracheal wall is formed by a connecting tissue and a
cartilage. Cartilages form incomplete rings. The parts adjoining an
esophagus, are replaced by fibrous ligament. There is a bifurcation of
a trachea in the region of 4 thoracic vertebra. Two main bronchuses
right and left depart under a right angle from trachea. The right
bronchus usually more shortly and more widely left. Bronchuses
dihotomical share on segmentary, subsegmentary and so up to 16 orders,
finally it is formed trachebronchial "tree". Bronchioles up to 16
generations have not got alveoluses . Tubes beginning from a larynx up
to final bronchioles are covered by a ciliary epithelium. The capacity
of pneumatic ways is enlarged as a result of a bronchiectasia,
aerodynamic resistance decreases, there is act of an inspiration. Air
passage ways are narrowed at end act of experation.
Transitive zone respiratory bronchioles (17-19 generations), they
have alveoli, air in them on a chemical compound is close to alveolar.
The zone of gas exchange last four generations of bronchioles (20-23)
, gas exchange occurs there between alveolar air and a blood. There is
this zone in lungs. As a whole , lungs look like spongiform, porous
conoideum corpuses laying on both half of a thoracic cavity. The least
structural element of a lung a lobe consists of the final bronchiole
leading in a pulmonary bronchiole and an alveolar bag. Walls of a
pulmonary bronchiole and an alveolar bag form