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Реферат Developing reading skills

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Текст реферата Developing reading skills

1. Introduction
2. Main part:
a) Reading skills. A Writing Approach to – Reading
Comprehension – S
chema Theory in Action.
b) The nature of foreignlanguage teaching. Vocabulary teaching

3. Conclusion.
4. References
Composing and comprehending: two sides of the same basic process. The
National Assessment of Educational Progress reveals that eightyfive
percent of all thirteenyearsolds can correctly complete a multiple
choice check on comprehension, but only fifteen percent can write an
acceptable sentence summarizing the paragraph read.
Such conditions, too frequent in most of today’ s schools, stem
inevitably from a failure to recognize that composing and
comprehending are processoriented thinking skills which are basically
interrelated. Our failure to teach composing and comprehending as
process impedes our efforts not only to teach children to read and
write, but our efforts to teach them how to think.
Comprehending is critical because it requires the learner to
reconstruct the structure and meaning of ideas expressed by another
writer. To possess an idea that one is reading about requires
competence in regenerating the idea, competence in learning how to
write the ideas of another.
This aspect of the relationship between comprehending and composing
explains Graves and Hansen report early success in their exploratory
project encouraging first grade children to write about their reading
( and to verbalize about the process) (1982). The relationship and the
absence of adequate interaction about ideas also explains why
preschool children learn little from the 5,000 or more hours they
spend watching television (Schramm 1977). Activity without language
does not become experience. The work of Ann Brown and others with
their studies of metacognition (1977, 1978, 1982), Duffy and
Roehler’ s explorations in reading (1981), and Perry
Lanier’ s work in mathematics at the Institute for Research on
Teaching, Michigan State University (1982), are demonstrating how
thinking about the process of comprehending, that is, consciously
considering the reconstructions that one composes, can enhance the
basic process itself .
The skills required to read science must acquired through reading
science. The skills required in writing science can be learned only by
writing science. Basic reading and writing instruction can provide
children with a rudimentary vocabulary and certain basic skills of
literacy, but application to higher levels of processing requires
specialized uses. We have long since learned that unless children are
taught to apply basic comprehension skills to a variety of subject
mutters – and experience guided practice in applying the skills
– they will not easily transfer their skills. Instances of
ability, say, to apply academic reading skills to life situations have
been widely reported. See, for example, the Adults