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Реферат Ecological problems

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Текст реферата Ecological problems

Ecological problems
The Earth is the only planet in the solar system where there is life.
If you look down at the Earth from a plane you will see how wonderful
our planet is. You will see blue seas and oceans, rivers and lakes,
high snowcapped mountains, green forests and fields. For centuries man
lived in harmony with nature until industrialization brought human
society into conflict with the natural environment. Today, the
contradictions between man and nature have acquired a dramatic
character. With the development of civilization man’ s
interference in nature has increased. Every year the world’ s
industry pollutes the atmosphere with millions of tons of dust and
other harmful substances. The seas and rivers are poisoned with
industrial waste, chemical and sewage discharge. People who live in
big cities are badly affected by harmful discharge from plants and
city transport and by the increasing noise level which is as bad for
human health as lack of fresh air and clean water.
Among the most urgent problems are the ozone layer, acid rains,
global warming, toxic pollution of atmosphere, disappearance of
forests, contamination of underground waters by chemical elements,
destruction of soil in some areas, threat to some flora and fauna
representatives, etc.
One of the most important pollution problems is the oceans. Many
ships sail in the ocean waterfishing ships, some ships carrying
people, some carrying oil. If a ship loses some of the oil in the
water, or waste from the ships in put into the ocean, the water
becomes dirty. Many sea birds die because of the polluted water. Many
fish are dying in the sea, others are getting contaminated. Fishermen
catch contaminated fish which may be sold in markets, and people may
get sick from eating them. Lakes and rivers are becoming polluted,
too. Some beaches are dangerous for swimming.
Another important problem is air pollution. Cars and factories
pollute the air we use. Their fume also destroys the ozone layer which
protects the Earth from the dangerous light of the Sun. Aerosols
create large “holes” in the ozone layer round the Earth.
Burning coal and oil leads to global warming which may bring about a
change in the world’ s climate.
The other problem is that our forests are dying from acid rains.
Deforestation, especially destruction of tropical forests, affects the
balance of nature in many ways. It kills animals, changes the climate
and ecosystem in the world.
A person can do some damage to the environment but the greater part
of pollution certainly comes from industry. Modern industry production
is the main threat to nature.
There are a lot of places on our planet that need immediate help. Our
country is not exception. The nuclear accident at Chernobyl, which
took place on April 26, 1986., has seriously aggravated the ecological
situation in Belarus. That catastrophe can be considered as the
largest disaster of the 20 th century. As the result of that accident
18%