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Federal Aviation Authority of Russia
Ulyanovsk Higher Civil Aviation School
Foreighn Languages Departament
Paper
“Forces Acting on an Airplane”
Cadet: Khokhlov Mark
Group№:P-03-3
Supervizor: Gromova G.S.
Ulyanovsk 2006
Content
Forces Acting on the Airplane.
Thrust opposes drag.
Flight Control Surfaces.
Laminar flow Airfoil.
Additional information.
Forces Acting on an Airplane
The airplane in straightandlevel unaccelerated flight is acted on by
four forces. The four forces are lift, gravity, thrust and drag.
The airplane in straightandlevel unaccelerated flight is acted on by
four forces--lift, the upward acting force; weight, or gravity, the
downward acting force; thrust, the forward acting force; and drag, the
backward acting, or retarding force of wind resistance.
Thrust opposes drag
Drag and weight are forces inherent in anything lifted from the earth
and moved through the air. Thrust and lift are artificially created
forces used to overcome the forces of nature and enable an airplane to
fly. The engine and propeller combination is designed to produce
thrust to overcome drag. The wing is designed to produce lift to
overcome the weight (or gravity).
In straightandlevel, unaccelerated flight, (Straightandlevel flight
is coordinated flight at a constant altitude and heading) lift equals
weight and thrust equals drag, though lift and weight will not equal
thrust and drag. Any inequality between lift and weight will result in
the airplane entering a climb or descent. Any inequality between
thrust and drag while maintaining straightandlevel flight will result
in acceleration or deceleration until the two forces become balanced.
Flight Control Surfaces
The three primary flight controls are the ailerons, elevator and
rudder.
Ailerons: The two ailerons, one at the outer trailing edge of each
wing, are movable surfaces t
hat control movement about the
longitudinal axis. The movement is roll. Lowering the aileron on one
wing raises the aileron on the other. The wing with the lowered
aileron goes up because of its increased lift, and the wing with the
raised aileron goes down because of its decreased lift. Thus, the
effect of moving either aileron is aided by the simultaneous and
opposite movement of the aileron on the other wing.
Rods or cables connect the ailerons to each other and to the control
wheel (or stick) in the cockpit. When pressure is applied to the right
on the control wheel, the left aileron goes down and the right aileron
goes up, rolling the airplane to the right. This happens because the
down movement of the left aileron increases the wing camber
(curvature) and thus increases the angle of attack. The right aileron
moves upward and decreases the camber, resulting in a decreased angle
of attack. Thus, decreased lift on the right wing and increased lift
on the left wing cause a roll and bank to the right.
Elevators: The elevators control the