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Реферат General policies of the European Union

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Текст реферата General policies of the European Union

Agriculture
On 30 June 1960, the European Commission tabled proposals for the
creation of a common agricultural policy (CAP). CAP is built upon the
three pivotal principles : m arket unity, Community preference, and
financial solidarity.
What are the objectives of the CAP?
i. to increase productivity,
ii.to ensure a fair standard of living for the agricultural
Community,
iii.to stabilize markets,
iv.to assure food supplies,
v.to provide consumers with food at reasonable prices,
· It recognises the need to take account of the social structure of
agriculture and of the structural and natural disparities between the
various agricultural regions and to effect the appropriate adjustments
by degrees.
Economic and monetary policy
The economies of the EU's Member States are becoming extraordinarily
intertwined thanks to the single market. More than 60% of their trade
is with each other, their companies are linked by a myriad of joint
ventures, common ownerships and cooperation agreements, their banks,
insurance companies and accountancy firms can operate freely across
national borders and ordinary citizens can open bank accounts in any
Member State and move capital around the Union as they wish.
But the full benefits of economic integration faster economic growth,
better job creation and wider choice for consumers are still not being
delivered to citizens as well as they should be. Part of the reason is
the existence of 15 different currencies. Despite the success of the
European Monetary System in promoting currency stability since 1979,
events in 1992 and 1993 demonstrated that currencies are always
vulnerable to sudden and disruptive movements.
Instability discourages investment partly because currency markets
tend to 'overshoot' and fix values either higher or lower than is
justified by real economic circumstances. Europe's many currencies
tend to increase the costs of travel and tourism and are a financial
burden to companies which operate in more than one Member State. Nor
is it easy to make a comparison between prices in these countries
which means that the consumer is not greatly encouraged to buy in the
cheapest market.
These are some of the reasons why the Union is aiming for economic
and monetary union (EMU) by 1999 . The original Rome Treaty had very
little to say about money because stable currencies were largely taken
for granted, thanks to the Bretton Woods system which had erected the
US dollar as the dominant monetary standard.
During the Community's first 35 years, coordination was more virtual
than real; the Commission analysed the economic situation and produced
its policy recommendations , but each Member State was entirely free
to determine its own priorities.
Now, they are steering their economies towards common objectives,
partly because that is the best way to prepare for EMU and partly
because they know that financial markets punish countries whose
policies are not particularly sound.