Готовые Домашние Задания

Рефераты по теме Государство и право

Реферат Government and Politics

Скачать реферат↓ [28.16 KB]



Текст реферата Government and Politics

CONTENT
Introduction 3
POWER 3
How is political power distributed among members of society? 3
TYPES OF AUTHORITY 4
Traditional Authority 4
Legal-Rational Authority 4
Charismatic Authority 5
TYPES OF GOVERNMENT 5
Monarchy 6
Oligarchy 6
Dictatorship and Totalitarianism 6
Democracy 7
POLITICAL BEHAVIOR IN THE UNITED STATES 8
Political Socialization 8
Participation and Apathy 9
Women and Politics 10
Interest Groups 11
MODELS OF POWER STRUCTURE IN THE UNITED STATES 12
Elite Model 12
Pluralist Model 14
Who Does Rule? 15
SUMMARY 15
KEY TERMS 16
References: 17
Introduction
Political system is one of the subsystem of society, and play
sufficient role in our life.
The term political system refers to a recognized set of procedures
for implementing and obtaining the goals of a group.
Each society must have a political system in order to maintain
recognized procedures for allocating valued resources. In political
scientist Harold Lasswell’ s (1936) terms, politics is who gets
what, when, and how. Thus, like religion and the family, a political
system is a cultural universal; it is a social institution found in
every society.
We will focus on government and politics within the United States as
well as other industrialized nations and preindustrial societies. In
their study of politics and political systems, sociologists are
concerned with social interactions among individuals and groups and
their impact on the larger political order. For example, in studying
the controversy over the nomination of Judge Robert Bork, sociologists
might wish to focus on how a change in the group structure of American
society— the increasing importance of the black vote for
southern Democratic candidates— affected the decision making of
Howell Heflin and other senators (and, ultimately, the outcome of the
Bork confirmation battle). From a sociological perspective, therefore,
a fundamental question is: how do a nation’ s social conditions
affect its daytoday political and governmental life?
POWER
Power is at the heart of a political system. Power may be defined as
the ability to exercise one’ s will over others. To put it
another way, if one party in a relationship can control the behavior
of the other, that individual or group is exercising power. Power
relations can involve large organizations, small groups, or even
people in an intimate association. Blood and Wolfe (1960) devised the
concept of marital power to describe the manner in which decision
making is distributed within families.
There are three basic sources of power within any political
system— force, influence, and authority. Force is the actual or
threatened use of coercion to impose one’ s will on others. When
leaders imprison or even execute political dissidents, they are
applying force; so, too, are terrorists when they seize an embassy or
assassinate a political leader. Influence , on the other hand,