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Реферат How to use dictionary

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Текст реферата How to use dictionary

1. Introduction
2.Types of dictionaries and their content
3.Kinds of dictionaries:
3.1. general dictionaries;
3.2.special dictionaries:
3.2.1. bilingual dictionaries;
3.2.2.explanatory dictionaries;
3.2.3.etymological dictionaries;
3.2.4.dictionaries of synonyms;
3.2.5.phraseological dictionaries;
3.2.6.pronouncing dictionaries;
3.2.7.spelling dictionaries
4. How to use a dictionary. Dictionaries entries.
5.The encyclopedic material of some American dictionaries.
7.The list of literature.
Dictionaries are tools, and they are much more complicated, and
capable of many more uses then we suspect. All of us know students
need encouragement and guidance in the use of dictionaries. Some
students are able to use their dictionaries with anything like
efficiency. Certainly there must be very few of those who come up
through the grades these days who are not familiar with the details of
looking up words in dictionaries, but it is one thing to find a word
in a dictionary and quite another to understand fully information
there given about it. Linguists and lexicographers have a matter with
dictionaries. Every linguist with an interest in the quantitative
properties of language will on some occasion be faced with some form
of the ultimate question in the word numbers game: ”How many
words did Shakespeare use?”, “How many words are there in
the English language?” “How many words should a dictionary
have?” The first question, at least, has a definite although not
simple answer: Shakespeare’ s complete works consist of a total
of 884647 words of text containing a grand total of 29066 different
words including proper names. But on the question ”How many words
should a dictionary have” it is very difficult to answer. Every
dictionary has a different number of words. On the contrary
lexicographers have a task to record the meanings of words, the task
of arranging these meanings in the orderthey think will be of most
help to those who use their work. Different editors solve this problem
of arrangement in different ways. In the prefatory part of any
dictionary you will find some indication of the plan that has been
followed in arranging the meanings. In the Werriam-Webster
dictionaries the meanings are arranged as far as possible, in the
order in wich they arose. In those dictionaries, the first meanings
given are the earliest a word is known to have had, and the more
modern meanings come later. The arrangement of meanings is difficult,
that’ s why the only safe course is to examine the forematter of
the dictionary to see what plan has been followed.
Dictionary is a book that contains a selected list of words arranged
in alphabetical order. It explains their meanings and gives
information about them. In a dictionary a person can look up a word
quickly, discover what it means and learn how it is prononced.
Dictionaries give the meanings of many kinds of words. Most modern