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Реферат Palestinian liberation organization

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Текст реферата Palestinian liberation organization

The Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO)
The Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) has been the embodiment
of the Palestinian national movement. It is a broad national front, or
an umbrella organization, comprised of numerous organizations of the
resistance movement, political parties, popular organizations, and
independent personalities and figures from all sectors of life. The
Arab Summit in 1974 recognized the PLO as the "sole and legitimate
representative of the Palestinian people" and since then the PLO has
represented Palestine at the United Nations, the Movement of
Non-Aligned Countries (NAM), the Organization of the Islamic
Conference (OIC), and in many other fora. In addition to its broad
national and political goals, the PLO has dealt with numerous tasks
with regard to the life of the Palestinian people in their main
communities and throughout the world through the establishment of
several institutions in such realms as health, education and social
services. As such, the PLO is more than a national liberation movement
striving to achieve the national goals of the Palestinian people,
including the establishment of a Palestinian state with Jerusalem as
its capital.
The PLO was established in 1964 with Arab support. At that time, the
PLO was headed by Mr. Ahmed Al-Shukairy and, since then, has undergone
significant changes in its composition, leading bodies, political
orientation, and even the locales of its headquarters. The leading
bodies of the PLO are the Palestine National Council (PNC), the
Central Council, and the Executive Committee. Political pluralism has
remained a defining feature of the organization, as have democratic
internal dialogue and attempts to reach decisions by consensus in its
bodies, recognizing the presence of many differing views and competing
alliances throughout different periods. In 1968, the organization
witnessed the beginning of the engagement of the Feda’ iyeen
organizations (armed struggle organizations), particularly Fateh. In
1969, Yasser Arafat, leader of Fateh, became the Chairman of the
Executive Committee of the PLO and, in 1971, he became the General
Commander of the Palestine Forces. His name has been synonymous with
the PLO and with the Palestinian national movement.
Since the establishment of the Palestinian National Authority (PNA)
and the convening of general elections in January 1996 in the Occupied
Palestinian Territory, including Jerusalem, which were preceded by the
return of most Palestinian leaders to their homeland, the
Authority’ s role and responsibilities continue to increase, in
some ways at the expense of the PLO. In the Palestinian territory, as
well as outside, Islamic groups remain outside the PLO, which
traditionally has not mixed religion and politics.
In general, the current Palestinian situation is constantly changing
and progressing towards the establishment of a state and the building
of a Palestinian democracy. These changes will affect the