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Текст реферата The teaching of Hugo Gratius

Tyumen State University
Faculty of History
International Relations Department
Term paper
“The teaching of Hugo Gratius of war and peace.”
Done by Denis Brovka,
Student of group 984
Checked by Christopher Goldsmith
Tyumen 2000
Introduction 3
Chapter I 4
Chapter II 7
Chapter III 12
Conclusion 15
Bibliography 16
Hugo Gratius, a scientist and a lawyer from Holland, lived from 1583
to 1645. In his famous treatise “The Three Books on the Right of
War and Peace”, published in 1625, he depicted the struggle of
the Dutch capital for freedom at the sea. He is considered to be the
founder of the bourgeois studies of the international law and is one
of the representatives of the big bourgeoisie as a scholar of law at
an early stage of its development during the dissolution of feudalism
in Western Europe and the first large revolt of bourgeoisie.
This book by Gratius is more or less a systematical report of the
basic theories of international law, which were common for that period
of evolution from feudalism to capitalism. It was for a long time one
of the most important books for diplomats.
According to his beliefs, Hugo was a representative of the period of
transformation from feudalist to bourgeois state. His ideas received
wide spread and founded the basement of further development of the
international law, because they expressed real conditions of
development and political demands of the newlyforming class of
bourgeoisie to the ruling feudal party. I must specially note the
progressive character of some of the Gratius’ s ideas in the
sphere of the international law that had a strong influence to modern
international relations. Hugo Gratius, being a bourgeoisie theorist on
its early stages, denied the opinion that force makes all the
decisions in the international relations. He thought that law and
justice should be number one in international relations…
But we must not forget that the progressiveness of his ideas was
inconsistent and limited by the narrow frameworks of the bourgeois law
views. It is necessary to note that modern bourgeois ideologists
renounce the principles promoted by the ancestors in 17 – 18
centuries when bourgeoisie was fighting against feudalism.
Chapter I
Hugo Gratius was on of the representatives of the leading (in 17
– 18 centuries) school of common law and treaty theory of state
origins. The school expressed the basic demands of bourgeoisie in its
struggle with feudalism; its theoretical basement was outlook, turned
out as a result of the revolution in natural history, reformation, and
a bundle of ideas, left from humanism in 15 – 16 centuries.
It must be noted here that although the school had a common
theoretical base it was not homogeneous. It had lots of trends, which
differed from one another by phases of bourgeoisie development, stages
of her struggle with feudalism, quantity of different class’ s