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Реферат Valentine's Day

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Текст реферата Valentine's Day

History of Valentine's Day
Valentine ’ s Day has always been the day dedicated to lovers.
There are many stories as to how Valentine ’ s day started. Here
ar e a few of them.
Lupercalia
Valentine ’ s Day has its origins in the Roman festival of
Lupercalia, observed on Feb. 15. Lupercalia celebrated the coming of
Spring in the Roman calendar (February was observed later in the year
than it is today). Lupercalia w as associated with the Roman gods
Lupercus and Faunus. Lupercus watched over shepherds and their flocks
and the festival of Lupercalia became a celebration intended to ensure
the fertility of flocks, fields and people.
The celebration of Lupercalia transf ormed and spread as the Roman
Empire grew. When the Romans conquered France, it was then that the
first Valentinelike cards may have been exchanged. Apparently, a
container in which women had placed their names (possibly accompanied
by love notes) was us e d in a lottery. Men drawing a women ’ s
name would either seek or were guaranteed that woman ’ s favors.

Saint Valentine ’ s Day
The legend of St. Valentine stems from reallife martyrs from the
Roman Empire known as Valentines. It is unsure who was the St.
Valentine, but there are two possible candidates. One of these
Valentines is believed to have been a Roman priest and physician. He
was killed in the third century, during the persecutions of the
Emperor Claudius II. After his death this Valentine was bu r ied in
the Roman road Via Flaminia. Pope Julius I is said to have later built
a basilica above his grave. A second Saint Valentine candidate,
believed to be a bishop of Teni ( a province in central Italy), was
executed in Rome.
These men ’ s status comes fro m legends of harboring
Christians from persecution, curing the blindness of a cell keeper
’ s daughter, and conducting marriages while they were forbidden
during times of war. It is this, along with the traditions of
Lupercalia, that came together to honor S t. Valentine as the patron
saint of lovers.
Eros-Cupid-Amor
From its association with Lupercalia, and that day ’ s
connection to fertility, comes St. Valentine ’ s association
with love and romance. This led Valentine ’ s enthusiasts to
appoint the Roman god Cu pid as a patron of Valentine ’ s day.
Cupid is also known as Amor or Eros in Greek mythology. Eros seems to
have been responsible for impregnating a number of goddesses and
mortals. The ancient Greeks believed Eros was the force "love," a
force they believe was behind all creation .
There are several legends about St.Valentine’ s Day. One of the
legends says that Valentine was Christian priest who lived in the 3
century A.D. He was put into prison by roman authorities for his
teachings and was beheaded on February 14. According to the legend he
performed a miraclehe cured his jailer’ s daughter of her
blindness. Before the execution he wrote her a letter signed