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Реферат Влияние туризма на экономику и социально-культурную сферу

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Текст реферата Влияние туризма на экономику и социально-культурную сферу

1 . Introduction .
Tourism is the world’ s largest and fast est growing industry.
In recent years there have been increases in international tourism for
the purpose of experiencing another culture. There is a widespread
opinion that the economic impact of tourism is always positive while
the social and environmental impact is always negative. Indeed,
increasing incomes to region s due to tourists are easy to see as well
as numerous hosttourist conflicts and destruction of the environment
and local cultures. However , tourism can have both positive and
negative outcomes for residents in communities when sharing and
preserving their culture and nature could be seen as conflicting
goals. ( Besculides, Lee, McCormick, 2002:303 ) In this paper I will
consider impacts of tourism with reference to the Lofoten Islands.
This is a popular tourist destination in Northern Norway. The area is
unique because of its nature and variety of sea activities , e.g.
fishing, boat trips, sailing etc. It is also known in Norway as a
traditional fishing community, where the fishing industry dominates
the economy and the social life of the local people. Today those
resources which used to be source of living for the local community
have become very attractive for tourists. It is a challenge to get
most profits of the situation and avoid possible conflicts.
2. Economic impacts of tourism
According to recent statistics, tourism provides 10 percent of the
world’ s income and employs almost one tenth of the world’
s workforce (www.investigate.html). By the year 2010 these numbers
will double. All considered , tourism’ s actual and potential
economic impact is astounding. Many people emphasi s e positive
aspects of tourism as a source of foreign exchange, a way to balance
foreign trade, an “industry without chimney” – in
short, manna from heaven. (L.van den Berghe , source u n known ) But
there are also negative sides of tourism’ s econ omic boom for
local communities:
Economic impacts to the local community depend on how much of the
incomes generated by tourists go to the host communities. In most
allinclusive package tours more than 80 percent of travellers’
fees go to the airlines, hotels and other international companies, not
to local businessmen and workers ( www.ecotourism.org) .
Large hotel chain restaurants often import food to satisfy foreign
visitors and rarely employ local staff for senior management
positions, preventing local farmers and workers from reaping the
benefit of their presence.
Resorts and hotels often overconsume natural resources like water and
power, forcing utility prices up and causing blackouts and water
shortages for locals.
Many tourists never leave the hotel grounds or cruise ship, reducing
the possibility of tourist income for local businesses. “ Rug
sack tourists” have little effect on host communities as they
consume very little during the trip.
Faced with