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Реферат 5 топиков по иностранному языку (english)

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Текст реферата 5 топиков по иностранному языку (english)

Moscow (1)
Moscow is the capital of Russia. The city is located in western Russia
and lies in the broad, shallow valley of the Moskva River, a tributary
of the Oka and thus of the Volga, in the centre of the vast plain of
European Russia. This region is one of the most highly developed and
densely populated areas of Russia.
The climate of Moscow is of the continental type, modified by the
temperate influence of westerly winds from the Atlantic Ocean. Winters
are cold and long, summers are short and mild . The moderate annual
precipitation occurs predominantly in the summer months, often in
brief, heavy downpours.
Only a small percentage of Moscow's population is employed in the
city centre because of the decentralization of workplaces. Industry is
the dominant source of employment, followed by science and research.
Although Moscow's role in the country's administration is of prime
importance, government as a source of employment is relatively minor.
Engineering (production of automobiles and trucks, ball bearings,
machine tools, and precision instruments) and metalworking are by far
the most important industries. Other important activities include the
manufacture of textiles, chemicals and derivative products, and
consumer goods (foodstuffs, footwear, and pianos); timber processing;
construction; and printing and publishing. Moscow is the headquarters
of state insurance and banking organizations.
The pattern of rings and radials that marked the historical stages of
Moscow's growth remains evident in its modern layout. Successive
epochs of development are traced by the Boulevard Ring and the Garden
Ring (both following the line of former fortifications), the Moscow
Little Ring Railway, and the Moscow Ring Road. From 1960 to the
mid-1980s the Ring Road was the administrative limit of the city, but
several areas of the largely greenbelt zone beyond the road have been
annexed since then.
The centre of the city and the historical heart of Moscow is the
fortified enclosure of the Kremlin. Its crenellated redbrick walls and
20 towers (19 with spires) were built at the end of the 15th century
and were partially rebuilt in later years. Within the walls of the
Kremlin are located the meeting places of the government of Russia.
Among these are the former Senate building (1776-88), the Kremlin
Great Palace (1838-49), and the modern Palace of Congresses (1960-61).
Other features within the Kremlin include the central Cathedral
Square, around which are grouped three cathedrals, all examples of
Russian church architecture at its height in the late 15th and early
16th centuries; a group of palaces of various periods; the white bell
tower of Ivan III the Great; the Armoury Museum; and the Arsenal
Along the east wall of the Kremlin lies Red Square, the ceremonial
centre of the capital. The Lenin Mausoleum stands beneath the Kremlin
walls, and the Church of the Intercession, or Cathedral of St. Basil
the Blessed, is at the southern end of the