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Реферат Adjective

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Текст реферата Adjective

Университет Российской академии образования
по теоретической грамматике
на тему: “ Adjective ”
иностранных языков
3 11 группа
Москва , 2001
The adjective expresses the categorial semantics of property of a
substance. It means that each adjective used in tile text presupposes
relation to some noun the property of whose referent it denotes, such
as its material, colour, dimensions, position, state, and other
characteristics both permanent and temporary. It follows from this
that, unlike nouns, adjectives do not possess a full nominative value.
Indeed, words like long, hospitable, fragrant cannot effect any
selfdependent nominations; as units of informative sequences they
exist only in collocations showing what is long, who is hospitable,
what is fragrant.
The semantically bound character of the adjective is emphasized in
English by the use of the propsubstitute one in the absence of the
notional headnoun of the phrase. E.g.:
I don't want a yellow balloon , let me have the green one over there.
On the other hand, if the adjective is placed in a nominatively
selfdependent position, this leads to its substantivization . E.g.:
Outside it was a beautiful day, and the sun tinged the snow with red.
Cf.: The sun tinged the snow with the red colour .
Adjectives are distinguished by a specific combinability with nouns,
which they modify, if not accompanied by adjuncts, usually in
preposition, and occasionally in postposition; by a combinability with
linkverbs, both functional and notional; by a combinability with
modifying adverbs.
In the sentence the adjective performs the functions of an attribute
and a predicative . Of the two, the more specific function of the
adjective is that of an attribute, since the function of a predicative
can be performed by the noun as well. There is, though, a profound
difference between the predicative uses of the adjective and the noun
which is determined by their native categorial features. Namely, the
predicative adjective expresses some attributive property of its
nounreferent, whereas the predicative noun expresses various
substantival characteristics of its referent, such as its
identification or classification of different types. This can be shown
on examples analysed by definitional and transformational procedures.
You talk to people as if they were a group . — > You talk to
people as if they formed a group . Quite obviously, he was a friend .
— > His behaviour was like that of a friend .
Cf., as against the above
I will be silent as a grave . — > I will be like a silent grave
. Walker felt healthy . — > Walker felt a healthy man . It was
sensational . — > That fact was a sensational fact .
When used as predicatives or postpositional attributes, a considerable
number of adjectives, in addition to the general combinability
characteristics of the whole class, are distinguished by a
complementive combinability with nouns. The