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Реферат Charles I

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Текст реферата Charles I

harles I became the English King in the twenty – fifth year
of his age. Unlike his father, h
e was usually amiable in his
private character, and grave and dignified in his bearing; but, like
his father, he had monstrously exaggerated notions of his rights of a
king and was not to be trusted. If his word could have been relied
upon, his history would have had a different end.
His first care was to send for Henrietta Maria and bring her from
Paris to be his Queen. The English people were very well disposed to
like new Queen, and to receive her with great favour when she came
among them as a stranger. But she greatly disliked the Protestant
religion and brought with her a crowd of unpleasant priests, who made
her do some very ridiculous things. And that was the reason that the
people soon disliked her, and she soon began dislike them, and she did
so much insetting the King against his subject that it would have been
better for him if she had never been born.
Charles I began his reign by continuing the war policy which had made
him popular in his father’ s lifetime; but the war brought
neither honour nor profit to England and Parliament was indisposed to
support it. By granting tunnage and poundage for one year only
parliament was able to put an effectual stop to the war. Charles
called too upon the seaports to furnish and to pay all the costs for
three months of a fleet of armed ships and he required the people to
unite in lending him large sums of money and it was very doubtful that
he would repay them. But if the poor people refused they were pressed
as soldiers or soldiers; if more or less rich people refused the were
sent to prison. Then the question came to be solemnly decided whether
this was not a violation of Magna Charta and an encroachment by the
King on the highest rights of the English people. The King’ s
lawyers answered NO, because to encroach upon the rights of the
English people would be to do wrong and the King could not do wrong.
And here was a fatal division between the King and the people.
The expedition to Cadiz in 1625 turned out a failure.
The King’ s marriage with Henrietta Maria of France created new
difficulties for him. He was now allied to a Catholic Power engaged in
suppressing its own Protestant subjects – the Huguenots at La
Rochelle – and was expected to help it in this task at the very
time when he was promising his own Parliament to carry out strict
penal laws against Catholics at home, and when he was sending money he
could ill afford to support a Protestant prince in Germany.
For all this it was necessary to call another Parliament. The people
sensible of the danger in which their liberties were chose for the
Commons those who were best known for their determined opposition of
the King; but still the King quite blinded by his determination to
carry everything before him addressed them when they met in a
contemptuous manner and just told them in so many words that