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Реферат History of runes

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Текст реферата History of runes

Report
History of runic alphabets
Fulfilled by the second year student of
Rostov State Pedagogical University
Translation Department
Neustroev Cyril
Checked by
Rostovon-Don
2001
From ancient times mankind was appealed by unknown writings:
halfforgotten antique languages, Egypt hieroglyphs, Indian
inscriptions… The fate of runes was much happy – their
sense wasn’ t lost in the course of time, even when Latin
alphabet became dominating one in Europe. For instance, runes were
used in calendars till the end of the 18-th c.
Modern linguists think that runes posses another kind of meaning,
which we cannot find in ideograms, hieroglyphs or in modern exotic
alphabets – this meaning exists in subconsciousness level. Runes
were the personification of the surrounding world, essence of outlook.
With the help of special links between runes a man could express
nearly everything, compiling them (so called combined runes). In
different times runes could change their meaning, so we can say this
adjusting system created dozens of meanings of one and the same
symbol. (Linguists find confirmation of this theory in the following
example – every rune in different languages had separate and
original meaning, which didn’ t fully coincide with another one
in the second language.
Like all others components of language, runes endured numerous
changes: in form, style of writing, system of sounds and letters,
which expressed them. We can say, that these alphabets took wide
spreading not only among Scandinavian and German tribes, but we can
also trace its penetration in Celtic and Slavonic languages. Now runes
keep their main original meaning in the beginning they were the
symbols of fortunetelling lore with sacred sense and mystic signs (The
general matter why they didn’ t get wide diffusion before AD).
Even the word “rune” corresponds as “secret”
(compare old Celtic “run”, middle welsh “rown”,
modern German “raunen”). The last 1000 years in Iceland
runes have been used for divination. In Anglo-Saxon England the hours
of king council were called “runes”.
The most important sources about runic history are ancient texts of
Scandinavian pagan religion – Old Edda by Brynolf Swesson and
Lesser Edda by Snorri Sturlusson. They were two missionaries who
discovered these manuscripts in the time of Christian expansion.
Another documents containing the information about runes origin are
Northern king sagas “Red leather” and Icelandic kin
chronicles. Tombstones, altars, pagan pillars called “runic
stones” played quite catholic role in scientific researches
usually they are found dappled with miscellaneous writings (Gothland,
Upland, Norway). The most famous is Cilwer stone, which dates from the
5-th c. So we can find a lot of writings on jewels and weapon, for
barbarians believed things had to posses their own names (breakteats).

German and Slavonic